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Modern automated systems of management of energy resources of premises (in particular, "Smart house" systems) contain in the structure of the device of switching of electric loadings which are mainly carrying out switching of the alternating current of network of power supply (~220 V, 50 Hz, 16 A). This class of devices is designed to implement the possibility of remote control of electrical loads (on / off), as well as the implementation of automatic operation of the system according to a given script. The article deals with various methods of switching electrical loads of residential premises and electromechanical and semiconductor devices, which are most widely used at the present time. The comparative analysis is carried out and shortcomings of each type of switching devices are revealed. The process of formation of an electric arc in the moments of switching of electromechanical devices is considered. Modern variants of protection or reduction of influence from arc formation in electromechanical devices of commutation leading to erosion of contacts are presented. The influence of a particular type of electrical load on the life of an electromechanical relay is considered. Modern semiconductor elements for switching loads in AC networks as well as ways of reducing electromagnetic interference in the networks using them are presented. Promising solutions such as "Snabberless" series triac reducing the total cost of the final product and reducing its weight and dimensions are considered. A method for switching electrical loads of residential premises is proposed, which is based on combining the advantages of electromechanical relays and semiconductor devices. This solution makes it possible both to maintain the small size of the final device and to extend the electrical life of the switching device to a time interval corresponding to the period of major repairs or the entire life of the premises.


Switching, electrical load, resistive load, inductive load, electromechanical relay, triac, transient, smart home, control, automation.

Aleksey Yu. Uskov

Head of Development Department, Development Department, Group of instrument-making companies LLC “Energiya-Istochnik” and LLC “ITeK BBMV”, Chelyabinsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. ORCID:

Andrey I. Tsimbol

Head of Design Department, Development Department, Group of instrument-making companies LLC “Energiya-Istochnik” and LLC “ITeK BBMV”, Chelyabinsk, Russia.

Valeriy I. Monastyrenko

Design Engineer, Development Department, Group of instrument-making companies LLC “Energiya-Istochnik” and LLC “ITeK BBMV”, Chelyabinsk, Russia.

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